miércoles, 8 de octubre de 2008

Consejos breves sobre accesibilidad

El artículo Accessibility Heuristics recoge consejos breves (quick tips) sobre la accesibilidad web del W3C (WCAG 1.0 y 2.0) y de IBM.


WCAG 1.0 Quick Tips

The classic “quick tips” derived from the Web Content Accessibility Guidelines 1.0:
  • Images and animations: Use the alt attribute to describe the function of each visual.
  • Image maps: Use the client-side map [element] and text for hotspots.
  • Multimedia: Provide captioning and transcripts of audio, and descriptions of video.
  • Hypertext links: Use text that makes sense when read out of context. For example, avoid “click here.”
  • Page organization: Use headings, lists, and consistent structure. Use CSS for layout and style where possible.
  • Graphs and charts: Summarize or use the longdesc attribute.
  • Scripts, applets, and plug-ins: Provide alternative content in case active features are inaccessible or unsupported.
  • Frames: Use the noframes element and meaningful titles.
  • Tables: Make line-by-line reading sensible. Summarize.
  • Check your work: Validate. Use tools, checklist, and guidelines at www.w3.org/TR/WCAG.
(… and we certainly appreciate mentioning of QA.)

WCAG 2.0 Quick Tips

With WCAG 2.0 there go new and indeed improved tips:
  • Perceivable:
    • Provide text alternatives for non-text content.
    • Provide captions and alternatives for audio and video content.
    • Make content adaptable, and make it available to assistive technologies.
    • Use sufficient contrast to make things easy to see and hear.
  • Operable:
    • Make all functionality keyboard accessible.
    • Give users enough time to read and use content.
    • Do not use content that causes seizures.
    • Help users navigate and find content.
  • Understandable:
    • Make text readable and understandable.
    • Make content appear and operate in predictable ways.
    • Help users avoid and correct mistakes.
  • Robust:
    • Maximize compatibility with current and future technologies.


IBM once shared an own set of accessibility recommendations and heuristics that is now, along with more detailed information, offered by the ACM:
  • Provide meaningful and relevant alternatives to non-text elements.
  • Support consistent and correctly tagged navigation.
  • Allow complete and efficient keyboard usage.
  • Respect users’ browser settings.
  • Ensure appropriate use of standard and proprietary controls.
  • Do not rely on color alone to code and distinguish.
  • Allow users control of potential distractions.
  • Allow users to understand and control time restraints.
  • Make certain the website is content compatible with assistive technologies.

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