lunes, 26 de junio de 2023

Una entrevista a un experto sobre inteligencia artificial y accesibilidad

En Axi – Accessibility Intelligence, an interview with David O’Neill podemos leer:

There is a lot of optimism,  enthusiasm and trepidation on the interwebs about the transformative effect Artificial Intelligence (AI) will have on everything from marketing to the creative arts.

I often say that I am not an expert, but I know people who are. This is very much the case in terms of AI. Fortuitously, I have direct access to someone who is steeped in both accessibility knowledge and AI — or should I say Machine Learning (ML)? I am referring to David O’Neill, a Research Fellow at Vispero  (the parent company of TPGi). He has a low social media profile but has quietly been driving improvements in automated accessibility testing, and accessibility testing in general, for decades.

In the following interview, we will learn about David, and how he envisions AI/ML to be a force for major improvements in how we tackle the thorny problems of making technology work better for people — all people.

Y explica un caso concreto:

First off, it is a common misconception that AI/ML can solve all problems. That simply is not the case. The efficacy of AI/ML is a function of the use-case, availability of applicable models and tasks, and the volume/quality of available data for training and/or semantic search. So, evaluating these use-cases involves fitting it with proven ML tasks and inventorying your data.

Detecting Accessibility Issues is largely a classification task. Today, we perform accessibility issue detection in a highly deterministic manner.  We have functions that accept code as an input and use rule-based logic to assert a “pass or fail” outcome. We can say that the following code snippet is not accessible because it is an image with no ALT text attribute: <img src=”someimage.jpg”>. The lack of ALT text is easy to detect which allows us to classify the <img> element as “Inaccessible” with 100% confidence.

Can we do that specific test better with ML using a probabilistic model? And if so, is it worth it? The answer is probably not. We can train a classifier on a million code examples of images that are not accessible but have no guarantee that it will learn enough to predict “Inaccessible” on future examples with 100% accuracy. A simple rule of thumb is to use conventional deterministic algorithms whenever you can – provided the algorithms work, of course! The reasoning is simple: why trade in a sure, easy thing for a hard and costly result that only has some “probability” of being correct?

The key point here is that there is no benefit in using ML with fuzzy results and <100% accuracy on tasks that already have 100% accuracy with a traditionally programmed, non-learned algorithm.

viernes, 16 de junio de 2023

Aplicaciones de la inteligencia artificial para la accesibilidad

En  Accessibility and Artificial Intelligence comentas algunas aplicaciones de la inteligencia artificial para la accesibilidad.

Básicamente, las dos situaciones que comenta son de sobra conocida: la generación automática de subtítulos en los vídeos y la generación automática de texto alternativo en las imágenes.

miércoles, 14 de junio de 2023

Los peligros de la inteligencia artificial para la accesibilidad web

En Five accessibility bugs GitHub Copilot offers to create explican los peligros de confiar en la inteligencia artificial en cuanto a la accesibilidad de una página web:

I like GitHub Copilot, at least for the narrow range of purposes I mentioned earlier. At the time I'm writing this up, there have been announcements about the next version of Copilot. Perhaps the next version will be fix some of these issues.

The danger here is that developers accept code suggestions, assuming that they're good. The 'wisdom of the crowd' could suggest that code based on millions of lines of code won't contain bugs. As demonstrated, this is not true.

Filtering the output, as it currently does to remove "offensive output", is possible. That probably wouldn't work better than current automatic accessibility testing and linting. So it would be an improvement, but not an absolute fix.

In my opinion, the responsibility always rests with the developer using the tool.

You shouldn't accept code suggestions from GitHub Copilot if you don't understand them. If you're expecting a certain type of suggestion, and you get one with extra attributes, you need to look them up. Don't use the code until you understand what every part of it does.

This could have a positive side. Maybe. It's possible that Copilot suggests accessibility considerations that people would otherwise have missed. Making people consider how to incorporate accessibility into their work normalizes it.

Adrian Roselli tampoco confía mucho en la inteligencia artificial para resolver los problemas de accesibilidad. En  No, ‘AI’ Will Not Fix Accessibility explica:

Large language models are habitual liars. Meanwhile, automated image descriptions aren’t much better. To give them the benefit of the doubt, perhaps these tools simply lack context.

As image tools get better at describing every detail of a picture, as language models do a better job of conveying an emoji-laden tweet in actual words, they are still not the authors of that content. They have no sense of why it was created. They cannot tell you that a series of vertical lines is meant to signify a wall in a meme.

lunes, 12 de junio de 2023

Publicada la actualización de os títulos de la formación profesional del sistema educativo de Técnico Superior en Desarrollo de Aplicaciones Multiplataforma y Técnico Superior en Desarrollo de Aplicaciones Web

El 3 de junio de 2023 se publicó en el BOE el Real Decreto 405/2023, de 29 de mayo, por el que se actualizan los títulos de la formación profesional del sistema educativo de Técnico Superior en Desarrollo de Aplicaciones Multiplataforma y Técnico Superior en Desarrollo de Aplicaciones Web, de la familia profesional Informática y Comunicaciones, y se fijan sus enseñanzas mínimas.

Este Real Decreto modifica el Real Decreto 450/2010, de 16 de abril, por el que se establece el título de Técnico Superior en Desarrollo de Aplicaciones Multiplataforma y se fijan sus enseñanzas mínimas y el Real Decreto 686/2010, de 20 de mayo, por el que se establece el título de Técnico Superior en Desarrollo de Aplicaciones Web y se fijan sus enseñanzas mínimas..

En la definición de los contenidos del Módulo profesional Diseño de interfaces web aparece:

Diseño de webs accesibles:

− El Consorcio World Wide Web (W3C).

− Principios y Pautas de Accesibilidad al Contenido en la Web (WCAG).

− Criterios de conformidad. Niveles de conformidad.

− Técnicas para satisfacer los requisitos definidos en las WCAG.

− Prioridades. Puntos de verificación.

− Métodos para realizar revisiones preliminares y evaluaciones de adecuación o conformidad de documentos web.

− Herramientas de análisis de accesibilidad web.

− Chequeo de la accesibilidad web desde diferentes navegadores y dispositivos.

− Posicionamiento en buscadores. Mejora de la visibilidad de un sitio web en diferentes buscadores.

miércoles, 7 de junio de 2023

WAI-ARIA 1.2 ya es una recomendación

El 6 de junio de 2023 se publicó la versión definitiva de Accessible Rich Internet Applications (WAI-ARIA) 1.2.

Las diferencias respecto a WAI-ARIA 1.1 están recogidas en B. Substantive changes since the WAI-ARIA 1.1 Recommendation.

lunes, 5 de junio de 2023

Accesibilidad de EPUB

El pasado 25 de mayo de 2023 se publicó al mismo tiempo EPUB 3.3 y EPUB Accessibility 1.1, que define los requisitos de accesibilidad de EPUB.

En EPUB Accessibility 1.1 podemos leer:

The primary source for producing accessible web content is the W3C's Web Content Accessibility Guidelines (WCAG) [wcag2], which establish benchmarks for accessible content. WCAG defines four high-level content principles — that content be perceivable, operable, understandable, and robust. These principles are also central to creating accessible EPUB publications, so it is no surprise that this specification builds on the extensive work done in WCAG.

Y después en 3.2 Relationship to WCAG dice:

WCAG [wcag2] and its associated techniques provide extensive coverage of issues and solutions for web content accessibility, covering everything from multimedia to interactive content to structured markup and more. They represent the foundation that this specification builds upon.

This specification does not repeat the requirements or techniques introduced in those documents, as it risks breaking compatibility between the two standards (e.g., putting guidance out of sync, or in conflict). At the same time, although this specification does not call out those requirements, it does not diminish their importance in creating EPUB publications that are accessible.

This specification instead defines how to apply WCAG to an EPUB publication — which is a collection of web documents as opposed to a single page — and adds an additional set of requirements. These requirements are no more or less important than those covered in WCAG; they are simply necessary to follow for EPUB publications. (Each requirement explains its relationship to WCAG in its respective section.)

The same is true of the techniques in the EPUB Accessibility Techniques document [epub-a11y-tech-11]. It provides coverage of techniques that are unique to EPUB publications, or that need clarification in the context of an EPUB publication. It does not mean that the rest of the WCAG techniques are not applicable.

As a result, although EPUB creators can read this section without deep knowledge of WCAG conformance, to implement the accessibility requirements of this specification requires an understanding of WCAG.

Because this specification adds requirements that are not a part of WCAG, an EPUB publication can conform to WCAG without conforming to this specification.

En EPUB 3.3 becomes a W3C Recommendation podemos leer:

Accessibility of EPUB publications was an essential part of the group’s activity. As a result, the EPUB Accessibility specification has been updated and, for the first time in the history of EPUB, is now an integral part of the EPUB Standard. Furthermore, the EPUB Accessibility specification is compatible with the European Accessibility Act whose influence will be significant on Digital Publishing in the years to come.