lunes, 28 de febrero de 2022

Encuesta de Discapacidad, Autonomía Personal y Situaciones de Dependencia

En El INE anuncia para el 28 de abril la presentación de resultados de la Encuesta de Discapacidad, Autonomía Personal y Situaciones de Dependencia que se publicó el pasado 25 de febrero podemos leer:

El Instituto Nacional de Estadística (INE) ha comunicado hoy que el próximo día 28 de abril tiene previsto presentar los resultados de la nueva Encuesta sobre Discapacidad, Autonomía Personal y Situaciones de Dependencia (EDAD), referida a hogares.


Esta esperada encuesta, la mayor operación estadística oficial sobre discapacidad, sustituirá a la vigente EDAD de 2008, que había quedado desfasada por el transcurso de más de 14 años desde su realización.

viernes, 25 de febrero de 2022

Accesibilidad web: legislación en España 2021


miércoles, 23 de febrero de 2022

Los peligros del texto alternativo automático

En el periódico El País me he encontrado el siguiente error:

En la imagen se puede ver el texto alternativo de una fotografía que no se ha podido cargar debido a un error en la conexión de red.

El texto alternativo está en inglés, es la descripción de la imagen que proporciona Getty Images:

MOSCOW, RUSSIA - SEPTEMBER 9: (RUSSIA OUT) Russian President Vladimir Putin speaks during a joint press conference with President of Belarus Alexander Lukashenko at the Kremlin on September 9. 2021 in Moscow, Russia. President Lukashenko is on a one-day visit to Russia. (Photo by Mikhail Svetlov/Getty Images)

Seguramente, el gestor de contenidos del periódico El País dispone de una opción para automáticamente definir el texto alternativo de una imagen a partir de la descripción que proporciona Getty Images.

Un error grave usar ese texto en inglés como texto alternativo.

lunes, 21 de febrero de 2022

El sesgo del superviviente

En Test Your Product on a Crappy Laptop se propone una hipótesis muy interesante basada en el sesgo del superviviente:
Survivor bias is the logical error that focuses on those who made it past a selection process. In the case of the helmet, it’s whether you’re alive or not. In the case of websites and web apps, it’s if a person can load and use your content.
When looking at your site's analytics, remember that if you don't see many users on lower end phones or from more remote areas, it's not because they aren't a target for your product or service. It is because your mobile experience sucks.

As a developer, it's your job to fix it.

Lo mismo se puede aplicar a los usuarios con discapacidad: si tu sitio web (o tu aplicación móvil) no tiene muchos usuarios con discapacidad, puede ser que no sea porque no estén interesados en tu producto, puede ser porque tu producto no es accesible y no lo pueden usar por mucho que quieran.

viernes, 18 de febrero de 2022

Accesibilidad web en las tablas


miércoles, 16 de febrero de 2022

Estudio de Web Almanac 2021

En Web Almanac podemos leer:

The Web Almanac is a comprehensive report on the state of the web, backed by real data and trusted web experts. The 2021 edition is comprised of 24 chapters spanning aspects of page content, user experience, publishing, and distribution.

El capítulo 9 está dedicado a la accesibilidad (Part II Chapter 9 Accessibility). En la introducción podemos leer:

Every year the internet grows—as of January 2021 there are 4.66 billion active internet users. Unfortunately, accessibility is not substantially improving alongside this growth as we’ll see throughout this chapter. As our reliance on internet solutions increases, so does the alienation of people who do not have equal access to the web.

2021 marked the second year of the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic. It is apparent that the disabled population is increasing as a result of long-term effects from COVID -19. In tandem with the long-term health effects of COVID-19, society as a whole has become increasingly dependent on digital services as a result of the pandemic. Everyone is spending more time online and completing more essential activities online as well. According to the Statistics Canada Internet Use Survey, “75% of Canadians 15 years of age and older engaged in various Internet-related activities more often since the onset of the pandemic”.

Products and services are also rapidly shifting online as a result of the pandemic. According to this McKinsey report, “Perhaps more surprising is the speedup in creating digital or digitally enhanced offerings. Across regions, the results suggest a seven-year increase, on average, in the rate at which companies are developing these [online] products and services.”

Web accessibility is about giving complete access to all aspects of an interface to people with disabilities by achieving feature and information parity. A digital product or website is simply not complete if it is not usable by everyone. If a digital product excludes certain disabled populations, this is discrimination and potentially grounds for fines and/or lawsuits. Last year lawsuits related to the Americans with Disabilities Act were up 20%.

Sadly, year over year, we and other teams conducting analysis such as the WebAIM Million are finding very little improvement in these metrics. The WebAIM study found that 97.4% of homepages had automatically detected accessibility failures, which is less than 1% lower than the 2020 audit.

The median overall site score for all Lighthouse Accessibility audit data rose from 80% in 2020 to 82% in 2021. We hope that this 2% increase represents a shift in the right direction. However, these are automated checks, and this could also potentially mean that developers are doing a better job of subverting the rule engine.

Because our analysis is based on automated metrics only, it is important to remember that automated testing captures only a fraction of the accessibility barriers that can be present in an interface. Qualitative analysis, including manual testing and usability testing with people with disabilities, is needed in order to achieve an accessible website or application.

We’ve split up our most interesting insights into six categories:

  • Ease of reading
  • Ease of page navigation
  • Forms
  • Media on the Web
  • Supporting Assistive technology with ARIA
  • Accessibility Overlays

We hope that this chapter, full of sobering metrics and demonstrable accessibility negligence on the Web, will inspire readers to prioritize this work and change their practices, shifting towards a more inclusive internet.

lunes, 14 de febrero de 2022

Una excelente explicación sobre el uso del foco

En A guide to designing accessible, WCAG-compliant focus indicators se explica casi todo lo que hay que saber sobre la accesibilidad del foco.

Se explican las pseudoclases :focus y :focus-visible (no dice nada de :focus-within) y también comenta los dos nuevos criterios de WCAG 2.2 (todavía es un borrador):

  • Success Criterion 2.4.11 Focus Appearance (Minimum) (Level AA)
  • Success Criterion 2.4.12 Focus Appearance (Enhanced) (Level AAA)

viernes, 11 de febrero de 2022

Estado de la accesibilidad web en el año 2022

En The baseline for web development in 2022 se comenta:


We’ve talked a lot about our users’ devices, but let’s now talk about the users themselves. According to the World Health Organization, over 1 billion persons have some kind of disability. There are many different kinds of disabilities but many of them influence how the user will interact with their devices. We usually use the term accessibility (a11y) to refer the actions needed to ensure disabled users can fully interact with our sites.

However, a11y is not only for disabled people. Actions to improve a11y have a positive impact on the UX for every user. The main reason for this is due to situational disabilities. Some examples of situational disabilities include trying to use your phone while eating or drinking something with one hand or device settings that places a black and white filter on the screen after a certain hour to improve sleep quality. Users faced with these situational disabilities will be able to use pages which are designed with a11y in mind as usual.

Moreover, not being accessible can also lead to legal problems. Depending on the legislation, users may even sue sites that don’t take a11y in account. Some famous cases include both Beyonce and Domino’s Pizza being sued for not being accessible for visually impaired users. So, not having proper a11y can be costly too.

How accessible is the web?

Let’s now take a look at how accessible is the web. To do that, we’ll take out some representative data from the Web Almanac’s a11y chapter. There are many more data points in there in case you want to take a deeper look.

  • 77.8% of sites don’t have good contrast between background and font color. This means, that some visually impaired users and users using filters such as the one mentioned above may not be able to fully use almost 80% of the web.
  • 29.4% of sites block zooming. Some browsers ignore this setting nowadays but this is still a very big number.
  • 42% of sites have improperly ordered headings. Cases such as using an h2 element without using an h1 element before. This lack of order might cause problems, especially for users using assistive technology.
  • 29% of sites use role="button". Some people might think that having that role and a click listener might be enough, but buttons must also respond to keyboard events and have proper focus handling. While you might achieve this using JS, you don’t need JS at all if you just use the button element.
  • 32.7% of sites have input elements with no accessible label. In other words, they don’t have an associated label element, an aria-label attribute, or anything else. This is worrying because you might be losing revenue due to this. For example, if a credit card input isn’t labelled, you might have users that want to buy something but don’t know where to write the information needed.

miércoles, 9 de febrero de 2022

lunes, 7 de febrero de 2022

Pliego y adjudicación para garantizar la accesibilidad de un sitio web de la administración pública

A través de los mensajes en Twitter de Iván Novegil:

Los enlaces para acceder a los documentos citados en Twitter:


  • Todo lo que comenta Iván es muy interesante, recomiendo su lectura.

    Según el acta, parece que el contrato se lo llevará la empresa EveryCode, S.L., que desarrolla y comercializa el producto InSuit, que es una capa de accesibilidad que "promete" mejorar la accesibiliad de un sitio web.

    Por cierto, ahora mismo, en el sitio web de InSuit aparece el mensaje "Your PHP installation appears to be missing the MySQL extension which is required by WordPress":

    Parece que alguien metió la pata el viernes por la tarde, antes de irse a casa a pasar el fin de semana.

    viernes, 4 de febrero de 2022

    HTML: Encabezados


    martes, 1 de febrero de 2022

    Problemas de accesibilidad en la sede electrónica del Ministerio de Justicia

    José Antonio Astasio, una persona con discapacidad visual severa, me pidió hace unos días que le ayudase porque se había topado con una página web de la sede electrónica del Ministerio de Justicia del Gobierno de España que tiene un captcha visual, sin una alternativa, y que, por tanto, no puede responder.

    En el siguiente vídeo realizo un breve análisis de la accesibilidad de la página web en cuestión. Además del problema de accesibilidad que experimenta José Antonio, la página web tiene otros problemas importantes: