miércoles, 20 de junio de 2018

La primera regla de ARIA

La primera regla de ARIA es bien sencilla: no uses ARIA.

Lo podemos leer en 2.1 First rule of ARIA use:
If you can use a native HTML element [HTML51] or attribute with the semantics and behaviour you require already built in, instead of re-purposing an element and adding an ARIA role, state or property to make it accessible, then do so.

lunes, 18 de junio de 2018

Vídeos del W3C

Web Accessibility Perspectives: Explore the Impact and Benefits for Everyone es una página web del W3C con numerosos vídeos sobre discapacidad y accesibilidad.

Algunos ejemplos:

viernes, 15 de junio de 2018

En Noruega todos los sitios web deben ser accesibles

Según It’s illegal to have an inaccessible website in Norway — and that’s good news for all of us, todos los sitios web en Noruega deben ser accesibles:

Está explicado en inglés en Universal design of ICT:

The requirements are relevant for private businesses, organisations, and government agencies. They are applicable to websites and self-service machines. The use of social media, such as blogs, Facebook and Twitter, for non-commercial purposes are not covered by the regulations.

The regulations were approved 21 June 2013 and took effect 1 July 2013. This means that new ICT solutions should be universally designed from 1 July 2014. Existing ICT solutions should be universally designed from 2021.

The Web Content Accessibility Guidelines (WCAG) 2.0 level AA is the standard for the universal design of websites. There are some exceptions regarding time-based media: 1.2.3 Audio Description or Media Alternative (Prerecorded content), 1.2.4 Captions (Live content) and 1.2.5 Audio Description (Prerecorded content).

miércoles, 13 de junio de 2018

Lo que dice Orange sobre los captchas

En el sitio web de Orange sobre accesibilidad web, existe la página CAPTCHA Accessibility:
CAPTCHAs are often problematic, even for savvy users. It is often necessary to undergo several trials before giving the right answer to a CAPTCHA. For some users a CAPTCHA is a no-go, plain and simple. For example a blind user cannot solve a visual CAPTCHA. Even if some sites provide alternatives, like audio CAPTCHAs in addition to visual CAPTCHAs, it actually seldom works. It’s even the first source of difficulty quoted by visually impaired users according to WebAIM’s latest survey at the end of 2017.
La conclusión es que no hay que usar captchas, son un grave problema de accesibilidad.

Y propone como alternativas:

  • HoneyPot and Time measuring, two simple techniques to put in place to identify bots.
  • Anti-spam and blacklist solutions to remove bot requests.
  • A logical or mathematical test, also called textual CAPTCHA.
  • An email, SMS or phone verification for reinforced security.

lunes, 11 de junio de 2018

Orange web accessibility guidelines

La compañía Orange tiene el sitio web Orange web accessibility guidelines con información sobre accesibilidad web.

martes, 5 de junio de 2018

Publicado WCAG 2.1

Ha tardado, WCAG 2.0 era de diciembre de 2008, han pasado 10 años, pero ya hay una nueva versión de las pautas de accesibilidad web que se pueden considerar el estándar internacional de accesibilidad web: Web Content Accessibility Guidelines (WCAG) 2.1.

En el blog del W3C tenemos el anuncio de la publicación de WCAG 2.1: WCAG 2.1 IS A W3C RECOMMENDATION.
Web Content Accessibility Guidelines (WCAG) 2.1 is now a W3C Recommendation. This is an evolution of W3C’s accessibility guidance, including expansion of mobile, low vision, and cognitive and learning provisions. It maintains W3C’s accessibility guidance, while maintaining W3C’s standard of implementable, technology neutral, objectively testable and universally applicable accessibility guidance.

¿Cuáles son las principales novedades?
For users of mobile devices, WCAG 2.1 provides updated guidance including support for user interactions using touch, handling more complex gestures, and for avoiding unintended activation of an interface. For users with low vision, WCAG 2.1 extends contrast requirements to graphics, and introduces new requirements for text and layout customization to support better visual perception of web content and controls. For users with cognitive, language, and learning disabilities, WCAG 2.1 improvements include a requirement to provide information about the specific purpose of input controls, as well as additional requirements to support timeouts due to inactivity. This can help many users better understand web content and how to successfully interact with it.

¿Qué pasará con WCAG 2.0?
WCAG 2.0 remains a W3C Recommendation. It was designed to be a highly stable, technology-agnostic standard, with informative supporting resources. The Working Group has taken care to maintain backwards compatibility of WCAG 2.1 with WCAG 2.0. All the criteria from WCAG 2.0 are included in WCAG 2.1, so web sites that conform to WCAG 2.1 will also conform to WCAG 2.0. As with WCAG 2.0, WCAG 2.1 will be supported by an extensive library of implementation techniques and educational materials, including Understanding WCAG 2.1 and Techniques for WCAG 2.1.

¿Y qué versión deberíamos usar?
W3C encourages organizations and individuals to use WCAG 2.1 in web content and applications, and to consider WCAG 2.1 when updating or developing new policies, in order to better address the needs of more web and mobile users with disabilities.

¿Y cuál es el futuro a corto plazo de WCAG?
WCAG 2.1 provides important and timely guidance but is still only a step—the Working Group expects to develop another dot-release, WCAG 2.2, to expand the new coverage even further. WCAG 2.2 may be developed under a similar timeline and requirements set than WCAG 2.1 was, though we plan to refine the process to address process challenges experienced during the development of WCAG 2.1.

¿Y cuál es el futuro a largo plazo de WCAG?
In addition to a further dot-release of WCAG 2, the Accessibility Guidelines Working Group has been working in parallel on a more major revision to accessibility guidelines, which would not have the same structure as WCAG 2. Beyond web content, these new guidelines are intended to incorporate guidance for user agents and other tools so requirements that depend on tool support are more clear for authors, and address issues of conformance and testability in a different way from WCAG 2. This is a major multi-year project, which is the reason additional updates to WCAG 2 are needed in the meantime.

¿Y qué pasará en España y otros países?

Para eso el W3C no tiene respuesta. El W3C anima a usar la nueva versión, pero las leyes indican que se debe cumplir WCAG 2.0. Incluso, todavía puede quedar algún país con leyes que hagan referencia a WCAG 1.0.

No obstante, como indica el W3C, WCAG 2.1 se ha desarrollado para que sea compatible hacia atrás y se conservan todos los criterios de conformidad de WCAG 2.0. Por tanto, si se desarrolla un sitio web que cumpla WCAG 2.1 también se estará cumpliendo WCAG 2.0.

lunes, 4 de junio de 2018

Consentimiento informado

Según la Wikipedia, el consentimiento informado "es el procedimiento mediante el cual se garantiza que el sujeto ha expresado voluntariamente su intención de participar en la investigación, después de haber comprendido la información que se le ha dado, acerca de los objetivos del estudio, los beneficios, las molestias, los posibles riesgos y las alternativas, sus derechos y responsabilidades".

Cuando se realiza una prueba de usabilidad o accesibilidad con usuarios se debe solicitar a los participantes que firmen un consentimiento informado. Un par de ejemplos de este documento:

viernes, 1 de junio de 2018

El scroll infinito es malo para la accesibilidad

¿Te gusta esto?

El famoso scroll infinito que se puso de moda hace unos pocos años y que sigue de moda.

¿Útil? A veces.

¿Usable? Pocas veces.

¿Accesible? Casi nunca. En los siguientes artículos te lo explican:

miércoles, 30 de mayo de 2018

Pequeñas cosas que pueden mejorar la accesibilidad de un sitio web

En Small Tweaks That Can Make a Huge Impact on Your Website’s Accessibility explican pequeños cambios que pueden mejorar enormemente la accesibilidad de una página web:

  • Document Structure and Semantics
  • Get Your Color Contrast Right
  • Responsible Text Labels
  • Small Typography Tweaks With a Big Impact
  • Enhance Keyboard Support
  • Don't Rely on Color Alone to Communicate State Changes
  • Wrapping Up

lunes, 28 de mayo de 2018

Algunos comentarios sobre el daltonismo

Muy interesante todo lo que se cuenta en What my color-blindness taught me about design:
I can tell the difference between green and red most of the time depending on what light I’m under, but I’m pretty sure it’s not the same green and red other people see. The color blindness is typically inherited. After I was diagnosed, my grandpa and uncle from my mom’s side were also diagnosed color blindness (they always were but they didn’t notice). Also, there is no cure for color blindness. This means that I will have to adapt. 
In fact, 8% of all men and 0.5% of all women suffer from color blindness. Although 99% of color blind people suffer from red-green color blindness, they don’t agree on the same colors. For example, I suffer from Deuteranomaly, and it is hard for me to tell violet from blue or yellow from light green; others who suffer from Protanomaly may see red, orange, yellow appear greener.